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Pragmatism Wikipedia Navigation menu VideoPragmatism - A truly American philosophy
Pragmatismi on ainoa alkuperältään amerikkalainen akateemisen filosofian perinne. Pragmatismiin on kuulunut keskeisesti naturalismi , anti kartesiolaisuus , empirismi , instrumentalismi , anti skeptismi , fallibilismi ja ennen kaikkea käytännön painottaminen esimerkiksi totuuden ja merkityksen arvosteluperusteina.
Pragmatismi syntyi aikana, jolloin psykologiaa ja tietoteoriaa ei pidetty erillisinä oppialoina. Se on nykyisin herättänyt uudelleen kiinnostusta, osittain johtuen analyyttisen filosofian valta-aseman väistymisestä sekä naturalistisen tietoteorian kasvavasta suosiosta.
Pragmatismi vastustaa näkemystä, jonka mukaan ihmisten äly ja kieli yksinään kuvastavat todellisuutta täydellisesti. Tässä suhteessa pragmatismi on formalistiselle ja rationalistiselle koulukunnalle vastakkainen näkemys.
Pragmatismin mielestä tiedolle ja teorioille syntyy merkitys vasta, kun niitä soveltavat ympäristössään toimivat elävät olennot.
Pragmatistin mielestä kaikki hyödyllinen tai toimiva ei kuitenkaan ole välittömästi totta, vaan pikemminkin totuus määräytyy sen mukaan, mikä pitkällä aikavälillä tuottaa ihmiskunnalle eniten hyötyä.
Käytännössä pragmatistien mielestä teoriat tulisi aina yhdistää todentamiseen, toisin sanoen teorioiden pohjalta pitäisi aina voida tehdä ennustuksia ja koetella niitä.
Täten ihmisten erilaisten tarpeiden tulisi lopulta määrittää inhimillisen tutkimuksen kohteet. Filosofi Sami Pihlströmin mukaan pragmatistit korostavat toiminnallista ja arvosidonnaista kuvaa ihmisestä todellisuuteen monenlaisten käytäntöjen kautta kiinnittyvänä olentona, joka älyllisen ongelmanratkaisutoimintansa avulla pyrkii toteuttamaan erilaisia inhimillisiä pyrkimyksiään ja siten selviytymään ongelmallisista tilanteistaan.
Ihmiset toimivat monenlaisten käytännöllisten näkökohtien ja tavoitteiden ohjaamina, ja nämä tavoitteet säätelevät sitä, millaisina todellisuus ihmisille hahmottuu.
Filosofisena liikkeenä pragmatismi sai alkunsa Yhdysvalloissa luvun loppupuolella. Pragmatismin perustajana pidetään tavallisesti yhdysvaltalaista Charles S.
Peirceä , jonka luvun kirjoitukset tieteellisestä menetelmästä, käsitysten muodostamisesta ja merkitysopista toimivat eräänlaisena pragmatismin kivijalkana.
James oli ensimmäinen, joka käytti nimitystä "pragmatismi" julkaisuissa, sanoen Peircen keksineen sen luvun alkupuolella. Jamesin käytettyä nimitystä ja laitettua sen Peircen nimiin, myös Peirce alkoi luennoida pragmatismista esittääkseen oman tulkintansa.
Myöhemmin hän kehitti oman nimityksensä pragmatisismi kuvaamaan hänen alkuperäistä pragmatismiaan enemmän selkeyden vuoksi kuin siksi, että hänellä olisi ollut suuria erimielisyyksiä Jamesin kanssa.
Peirceä ja Jamesia innoittivat useat heitä edeltävät ajattelijat, erityisesti Alexander Bain , joka tutki yhteyksiä uskomusten, käyttäytymisen ja taipumusten välillä.
Hän sanoi, että uskomus on väittämä, jonka mukaisesti henkilö on valmistautunut toimimaan. Perinteisen pragmatismin herättämä kansainvälinen keskustelu hiljeni vähitellen luvulla.
Angloamerikkalaisessa filosofiassa valta-aseman sai brittiläisen analyyttisen perinteen ohella Wienin piirin looginen empirismi.
Päähuomio kiinnittyi tieteenfilosofiaan. Vahvimmin pragmatismin perinnettä piti yllä John Dewey. Toisen maailmansodan jälkeen Yhdysvalloissa eurooppalaisen loogisen empirismin ja amerikkalaisen pragmatismin ajatusperinteet sulautuivat yhteen.
Suomalaisessa filosofiassa virikkeitä pragmatismista ovat Ilkka Niiniluodon kirjoittaman pragmatismin yleisesityksen mukaan saaneet muun muassa Oiva Ketosen naturalistinen ja emergentistinen tieteenfilosofia, Jaakko Hintikan uuskantilainen ajatus olioista sinänsä tiedonhankintaan liittyvien käsitteellisten toimintojen kautta saavutettavina raja-arvoina sekä Raimo Tuomelan episteeminen eli tiedollinen totuusmääritelmä.
Pragmatismia esiteltiin suomenkielisille lukijoille käännösten kautta jo luvulla , kun maailmalla käytiin vilkasta keskustelua erityisesti William Jamesin tunnetuksi tekemästä pragmatismin versiosta.
Keskusteluun osallistuivat myös eräät suomalaiset ajattelijat. Esimerkiksi Eino Kaila laati nuoruudessaan esittelyjä ja arvosteluja William Jamesin ajattelusta.
Oiva Ketonen kirjoitti Ajatus -vuosikirjaan muistokirjoituksen Deweyn kuoltua vuonna Uuspragmatismi on yhteisnimitys erilaisille ajattelijoille, joista osa on jyrkästikin eri mieltä toistensa kanssa, kuten Richard Rorty ja Hilary Putnam.
Lewis suhtautui hyvin kriittisesti John Deweyyn. Merkittäviin analyyttisen perinteen edustajiin kuuluvat C. Lewis, W.
Quine , Donald Davidson , Hilary Putnam sekä Richard Rorty varhaisissa teoksissaan. Stanley Fish , Jürgen Habermas ja myöhempi Rorty ovat lähempänä mannermaista perinnettä.
Uusklassinen pragmatismi, joka on kätevä mutta harvoin käytetty nimitys, on nimitys niille ajattelijoille, jotka ovat pysyneet lähempänä klassisen pragmatismin ajatuksia.
Päinvastoin kuin nimestä voisi päätellä, uusklassinen pragmatismi ei ole mitenkään konservatiivista.
Kaikkia pragmatisteja ei voi luonnehtia helposti. Esimerkiksi Stephen Toulminin ajattelu sopii hyvin yhteen uusklassisten pragmatistien kanssa, mutta hän on päätynyt näkemyksiinsä itsenäisesti, sekä klassisesta että uusklassisesta perinteestä riippumatta.
Jälkianalyyttisen ja angloamerikkalaisen filosofian monialaistuttua on mahdollista, että useat filosofit ovat saaneet vaikutteita pragmatistisesta ajattelusta, vaikka eivät tunnustaudu julkisesti pragmatisteiksi.
In a manuscript,  Peirce wrote that, in the Metaphysical Club decades earlier, Nicholas St. John Green. James and Peirce, inspired by crucial links among belief, conduct, and disposition , agreed with Green.
John Shook has said, "Chauncey Wright also deserves considerable credit, for as both Peirce and James recall, it was Wright who demanded a phenomenalist and fallibilist empiricism as a vital alternative to rationalistic speculation.
Pragmatism is regarded as a distinctively American philosophy. Schiller , George Herbert Mead , and others, it has proved durable and popular.
But Peirce did not seize on this fact to enhance his reputation, and even coined the word "pragmaticism" to distinguish his philosophical position.
Pragmatism starts with the idea that belief is that upon which one is prepared to act. Peirce's pragmatism is about conceptions of objects. His pragmatism is a method for fruitfully sorting out conceptual confusions caused, for example, by distinctions that make sometimes needful formal yet not practical differences.
It equates any conception of an object with a conception of that object's effects to a general extent of those conceived effects' conceivable implications for informed practice.
Those conceivable practical implications are the conception's meaning. The meaning is the consequent form of conduct or practice that would be implied by accepting the conception as true.
Peirce's pragmaticism, in the strict sense, is about the conceptual elucidation of conceptions into such meanings — about how to make our ideas clear.
Making them true, in the sense of proving and bearing them out in fruitful practice, goes beyond that. A conception's truth is its correspondence to the real, to that which would be found by investigation taken far enough.
A conception's actual confirmation if it occurs is neither its meaning nor its truth per se , but an actual upshot.
In " How to Make Our Ideas Clear ",  Peirce discusses three grades of clearness of conception:. By way of example of how to clarify conceptions, he addressed conceptions about truth and the real as questions of the presuppositions of reasoning in general.
To reason is to presuppose and at least to hope , as a principle of the reasoner's self-regulation, that the truth is independent of our vagaries of opinion and is discoverable.
In clearness's second grade the "nominal" grade , he defines truth as the correspondence of a sign in particular, a proposition to its object, and the real as the object be it a possibility or quality, or an actuality or brute fact, or a necessity or norm or law to which a true sign corresponds, such that truth and the real are independent of that which you or I or any actual, definite community of inquirers think.
After that needful but confined step, next in clearness's third grade the pragmatic, practice-oriented grade he defines truth — not as actual consensus, such that to inquire would be to poll the experts — but as that which would be reached, sooner or later but still inevitably, by research taken far enough, such that the real does depend on that ideal final opinion—a dependence to which he appeals in theoretical arguments elsewhere, for instance for the long-run validity of the rule of induction.
For more on Peirce's theory of truth, see the Peirce section in Pragmatic theory of truth. Peirce's discussions and definitions of truth have influenced several epistemic truth theorists and been used as foil for deflationary and correspondence theories of truth.
Peirce said that a conception's meaning consists in " all general modes of rational conduct " implied by "acceptance" of the conception—that is, if one were to accept, first of all, the conception as true, then what could one conceive to be consequent general modes of rational conduct by all who accept the conception as true?
His pragmatism, since a conception is general, does not equate a conception's meaning, its intellectual purport, with any definite set of actual consequences or upshots corroborating or undermining the conception or its worth, nor does it equate its meaning, much less its truth if it is true , with the conceived or actual benefit or cost of the conception itself, like a meme or, say, propaganda , outside the perspective of its being true in what it purports.
If it is true, its truth is not transitory but instead immutable and independent of actual trends of opinion. His pragmatism also bears no resemblance to "vulgar" pragmatism, which misleadingly connotes a ruthless and Machiavellian search for mercenary or political advantage.
Rather, Peirce's pragmatic maxim is the heart of his pragmatism as a method of experimentational mental reflection  arriving at conceptions in terms of conceivable confirmatory and disconfirmatory circumstances—a method hospitable to the generation of explanatory hypotheses, and conducive to the employment and improvement of verification  to test the truth of putative knowledge.
Peirce's pragmatism, as method and theory of definitions and the clearness of ideas , is a department within his theory of inquiry,  which he variously called "Methodeutic" and "Philosophical or Speculative Rhetoric".
He applied his pragmatism as a method throughout his work. Peirce called his pragmatism "the logic of abduction ",  that is, the logic of inference to explanatory hypotheses.
As a method conducive to hypotheses as well as predictions and testing, pragmatism leads beyond the usual duo of foundational alternatives, namely:.
His approach is distinct from foundationalism , empiricist or otherwise, as well as from coherentism , by the following three dimensions:.
A theory that proves itself more successful than its rivals in predicting and controlling our world is said to be nearer the truth.
This is an operational notion of truth employed by scientists. In " The Fixation of Belief ", Peirce characterized inquiry in general not as the pursuit of truth per se but as the struggle to settle disturbances or conflicts of belief, irritating, inhibitory doubts, belief being that on which one is willing to act.
That let Peirce frame scientific inquiry not only as a special kind of inquiry in a broader spectrum, but also, like inquiry generally, as based on actual doubts, not mere verbal doubts such as hyperbolic doubt , which he held to be fruitless, and it let him also frame it, by the same stroke, as requiring that proof rest on propositions free from actual doubt, rather than on ultimate and absolutely indubitable propositions.
He outlined four methods, ordered from least to most successful in achieving a secure fixation of belief:. Peirce held that, in practical affairs, slow and stumbling ratiocination is often dangerously inferior to instinct and traditional sentiment, and that the scientific method is best suited to theoretical research,  which in turn should not be bound to the other methods and to practical ends; reason's "first rule" is that, in order to learn, one must desire to learn and, as a corollary, must not block the way of inquiry.
Starting from the idea that people seek not truth per se but instead to subdue irritating, inhibitory doubt, Peirce shows how, through the struggle, some can come to submit to truth, seek as truth the guidance of potential practice correctly to its given goal, and wed themselves to the scientific method.
It is sometimes stated that James' and other philosophers' use of the word pragmatism so dismayed Peirce that he renamed his own variant pragmaticism.
Susan Haack has disagreed,  pointing out the context in which Peirce publicly introduced the latter term in Haack's excerpt of Peirce begins below at the words "But at present The fuller excerpt below supports her case further:.
The famed psychologist, James , first took it up, seeing that his "radical empiricism" substantially answered to the writer's definition of pragmatism, albeit with a certain difference in the point of view.
Next, the admirably clear and brilliant thinker, Mr. Ferdinand C. Schiller , casting about for a more attractive name for the "anthropomorphism" of his Riddle of the Sphinx , lit, in that most remarkable paper of his on Axioms as Postulates , upon the same designation "pragmatism," which in its original sense was in generic agreement with his own doctrine, for which he has since found the more appropriate specification "humanism," while he still retains "pragmatism" in a somewhat wider sense.
So far all went happily. But at present, the word begins to be met with occasionally in the literary journals, where it gets abused in the merciless way that words have to expect when they fall into literary clutches.
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Behaviorism and functionalism in psychology and sociology also have ties to pragmatism, which is not surprising considering that James and Dewey were both scholars of psychology and that Mead became a sociologist.
Pragmatism emphasizes the connection between thought and action. Applied fields like public administration ,  political science ,  leadership studies,  international relations ,  conflict resolution,  and research methodology  have incorporated the tenets of pragmatism in their field.
Often this connection is made using Dewey and Addams's expansive notion of democracy. In the early 20th century, Symbolic interactionism , a major perspective within sociological social psychology, was derived from pragmatism, especially the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Cooley , as well as that of Peirce and William James.
Increasing attention is being given to pragmatist epistemology in other branches of the social sciences, which have struggled with divisive debates over the status of social scientific knowledge.
Enthusiasts suggest that pragmatism offers an approach that is both pluralist and practical. The classical pragmatism of John Dewey , William James , and Charles Sanders Peirce has influenced research in the field of public administration.
Scholars claim classical pragmatism had a profound influence on the origin of the field of public administration.
Public administrators are also responsible for the day-to-day work with citizens. Dewey's participatory democracy can be applied in this environment.
Dewey and James' notion of theory as a tool, helps administrators craft theories to resolve policy and administrative problems.
Further, the birth of American public administration coincides closely with the period of greatest influence of the classical pragmatists.
Which pragmatism classical pragmatism or neo-pragmatism makes the most sense in public administration has been the source of debate.
The debate began when Patricia M. Shields introduced Dewey's notion of the Community of Inquiry. Miller  and Shields   also responded.
In addition, applied scholarship of public administration that assesses charter schools ,  contracting out or outsourcing ,  financial management,  performance measurement ,  urban quality of life initiatives,  and urban planning  in part draws on the ideas of classical pragmatism in the development of the conceptual framework and focus of analysis.
The health sector's administrators' use of pragmatism has been criticized as incomplete in its pragmatism, however,  according to the classical pragmatists, knowledge is always shaped by human interests.
The administrator's focus on "outcomes" simply advances their own interest, and this focus on outcomes often undermines their citizen's interests, which often are more concerned with process.
On the other hand, David Brendel argues that pragmatism's ability to bridge dualisms, focus on practical problems, include multiple perspectives, incorporate participation from interested parties patient, family, health team , and provisional nature makes it well suited to address problems in this area.
Since the mid s, feminist philosophers have re-discovered classical pragmatism as a source of feminist theories.
Works by Seigfried,  Duran,  Keith,  and Whipps  explore the historic and philosophic links between feminism and pragmatism.
The connection between pragmatism and feminism took so long to be rediscovered because pragmatism itself was eclipsed by logical positivism during the middle decades of the twentieth century.
As a result, it was lost from femininist discourse. Feminists now consider pragmatism's greatest strength to be the very features that led to its decline.
These are "persistent and early criticisms of positivist interpretations of scientific methodology; disclosure of value dimension of factual claims"; viewing aesthetics as informing everyday experience; subordinating logical analysis to political, cultural, and social issues; linking the dominant discourses with domination; "realigning theory with praxis; and resisting the turn to epistemology and instead emphasizing concrete experience".
Feminist philosophers point to Jane Addams as a founder of classical pragmatism. Mary Parker Follett was also an important feminist pragmatist concerned with organizational operation during the early decades of the 20th century.
Jane Addams, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead developed their philosophies as all three became friends, influenced each other, and were engaged in the Hull House experience and women's rights causes.
In the essay "The Thirteen Pragmatisms", Arthur Oncken Lovejoy argued that there's significant ambiguity in the notion of the effects of the truth of a proposition and those of belief in a proposition in order to highlight that many pragmatists had failed to recognize that distinction.
Franciscan monk Celestine Bittle presented multiple criticisms of pragmatism in his book Reality and the Mind: Epistemology.
For Bittle, defining truth as what is useful is a "perversion of language". Therefore, the problem of knowledge posed by the intellect is not solved, but rather renamed.
Renaming truth as a product of the will cannot help it solve the problems of the intellect, according to Bittle.
Bittle cited what he saw as contradictions in pragmatism, such as using objective facts to prove that truth does not emerge from objective fact; this reveals that pragmatists do recognize truth as objective fact, and not, as they claim, what is useful.
Bittle argued there are also some statements that cannot be judged on human welfare at all. Such statements for example the assertion that "a car is passing" are matters of "truth and error" and do not affect human welfare.
British philosopher Bertrand Russell devoted a chapter each to James and Dewey in his book A History of Western Philosophy ; Russell pointed out areas in which he agreed with them but also ridiculed James's views on truth and Dewey's views on inquiry.
Neopragmatism as represented by Richard Rorty has been criticized as relativistic both by other neopragmatists such as Susan Haack Haack and by many analytic philosophers Dennett Rorty's early analytic work, however, differs notably from his later work which some, including Rorty, consider to be closer to literary criticism than to philosophy, and which attracts the brunt of criticism from his detractors.
I refer to Mr. Charles S. Peirce, with whose very existence as a philosopher I dare say many of you are unacquainted.
He is one of the most original of contemporary thinkers; and the principle of practicalism or pragmatism, as he called it, when I first heard him enunciate it at Cambridge in the early [s] is the clue or compass by following which I find myself more and more confirmed in believing we may keep our feet upon the proper trail.
James credited Peirce again in lectures published in as Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking , see Lecture 2, fourth paragraph.
Indeed, it may be said that if two apparently different definitions of the reality before us should have identical consequences, those two definitions would really be identical definitions, made delusively to appear different merely by the different verbiage in which they are expressed.
Peirce, especially the second paper, "How to make our Thoughts clear," [ sic ] in the Popular Science Monthly for January, I have always fathered my pragmati ci sm as I have called it since James and Schiller made the word [pragmatism] imply "the will to believe," the mutability of truth, the soundness of Zeno's refutation of motion, and pluralism generally , upon Kant, Berkeley, and Leibniz.
Important introductory primary texts Note that this is an introductory list: some important works are left out and some less monumental works that are excellent introductions are included.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the philosophical movement. For other uses, see Pragmatism disambiguation.
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Main article: Pragmatic theory of truth. Main article: Pragmatic ethics. Main article: Neopragmatism. Classical pragmatists — [ edit ] Name Lifetime Notes Charles Sanders Peirce — was the founder of American pragmatism later called by Peirce pragmaticism.
He wrote on a wide range of topics, from mathematical logic and semiotics to psychology. William James — influential psychologist and theorist of religion as well as philosopher.
First to be widely associated with the term "pragmatism" due to Peirce's lifelong unpopularity. John Dewey — prominent philosopher of education , referred to his brand of pragmatism as instrumentalism.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Supreme Court Associate Justice. Schiller — one of the most important pragmatists of his time, Schiller is largely forgotten today.
Important protopragmatists or related thinkers Name Lifetime Notes George Herbert Mead — philosopher and sociological social psychologist. Josiah Royce — colleague of James at Harvard who employed pragmatism in an idealist metaphysical framework, he was particularly interested in the philosophy of religion and community; his work is often associated with neo-Hegelianism.
George Santayana — although he eschewed the label "pragmatism" and called it a "heresy", several critics argue that he applied pragmatist methodologies to naturalism , especially in his early masterwork, The Life of Reason.
Du Bois — student of James at Harvard who applied pragmatist principles to his sociological work, especially in The Philadelphia Negro and Atlanta University Studies.
Additional figures Name Lifetime Notes Giovanni Papini — Italian essayist, mostly known because James occasionally mentioned him.
Giovanni Vailati — Italian analytic and pragmatist philosopher. Hu Shih — Chinese intellectual and reformer, student and translator of Dewey's and advocate of pragmatism in China.
Reinhold Niebuhr — American philosopher and theologian, inserted pragmatism into his theory of Christian realism. Analytic, neo- and other pragmatists —present [ edit ] Name Lifetime Notes Richard J.
Thomas Burke — Author of What Pragmatism Was , Dewey's New Logic His work interprets contemporary philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophical logic through the lens of classical American pragmatism.
Arthur Fine — Philosopher of Science who proposed the Natural Ontological Attitude to the debate of scientific realism. Stanley Fish — Literary and Legal Studies pragmatist.
Criticizes Rorty's and Posner's legal theories as "almost pragmatism"  and authored the afterword in the collection The Revival of Pragmatism.
Clarence Irving Lewis — a leading authority on symbolic logic and on the philosophic concepts of knowledge and value.
Joseph Margolis — still proudly defends the original Pragmatists and sees his recent work on Cultural Realism as extending and deepening their insights, especially the contribution of Peirce and Dewey, in the context of a rapprochement with Continental philosophy.
Hilary Putnam in many ways the opposite of Rorty and thinks classical pragmatism was too permissive a theory.
Richard Rorty — famous author of Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. John J. Stuhr Willard van Orman Quine — pragmatist philosopher, concerned with language , logic , and philosophy of mathematics.
Mike Sandbothe — Applied Rorty's neopragmatism to media studies and developed a new branch that he called media philosophy. Together with authors such as Juergen Habermas, Hans Joas, Sami Pihlstroem, Mats Bergmann, Michael Esfeld, and Helmut Pape, he belongs to a group of European pragmatists who make use of Peirce, James, Dewey, Rorty, Brandom, Putnam, and other representatives of American pragmatism in continental philosophy.
Richard Shusterman philosopher of art. Jason Stanley — Defends a pragmatist form of contextualism against semantic varieties of contextualism in his Knowledge and Practical Interest.
Robert B. Talisse — defends an epistemological conception of democratic politics that is explicitly opposed to Deweyan democracy and yet rooted in a conception of social epistemology that derives from the pragmatism of Charles Peirce.
His work in argumentation theory and informal logic also demonstrates pragmatist leanings. Stephen Toulmin — student of Wittgenstein, known especially for his The Uses of Argument.
Roberto Unger — in The Self Awakened: Pragmatism Unbound , advocates for a "radical pragmatism", one that "de-naturalizes" society and culture, and thus insists that we can "transform the character of our relation to social and cultural worlds we inhabit rather than just to change, little by little, the content of the arrangements and beliefs that comprise them.
Isaac Levi — seeks to apply pragmatist thinking in a decision-theoretic perspective. Susan Haack — teaches at the University of Miami, sometimes called the intellectual granddaughter of C.
Peirce, known chiefly for foundherentism. Nicholas Rescher — advocates a methodological pragmatism that sees functional efficacy as evidentiating validity.
Pragmatists in the extended sense [ edit ] Name Lifetime Notes Cornel West — thinker on race, politics, and religion; operates under the sign of "prophetic pragmatism".
Wilfrid Sellars — broad thinker, attacked mainstream variants of foundationalism in the analytic tradition. Frank P.
Ramsey — author of the philosophical work Universals. Karl-Otto Apel — author of "Charles S. Peirce: From Pragmatism to Pragmaticism " Randolph Bourne — author of the pragmatist anti-war essay "Twilight of Idols" C.
Wright Mills — author of Sociology and Pragmatism: The Higher Learning in America and was a commentator on Dewey. Jürgen Habermas — author of "What Is Universal Pragmatics?
American philosophy Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography Doctrine of internal relations Holistic pragmatism New legal realism Pragmatism as a tradition of communication theory Pragmatic model Realpolitik.
Reprinted often, including Collected Papers v. In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Spring ed. Prometheus Books. Pragmatism and educational research.
Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Internet Archive Eprint. See also James's Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking , Lecture 2, fourth paragraph.
See pp. II, n. Reprited often, including Collected Papers v. XV, n. Peirce wrote: I have always fathered my pragmati ci sm as I have called it since James and Schiller made the word [pragmatism] imply "the will to believe," the mutability of truth, the soundness of Zeno's refutation of motion, and pluralism generally , upon Kant, Berkeley, and Leibniz.
After discussing James, Peirce stated Section V, fourth paragraph as the specific occasion of his coinage "pragmaticism", journalist, pragmatist, and literary author Giovanni Papini 's declaration of pragmatism's indefinability see for example "What Is Pragmatism Like", a translation published in October in Popular Science Monthly v.
Peirce in his closing paragraph wrote that "willing not to exert the will willing to believe " should not be confused with "active willing willing to control thought, to doubt, and to weigh reasons ", and discussed his dismay by that which he called the other pragmatists' "angry hatred of strict logic".
He also rejected their nominalist tendencies. But he remained allied with them about the falsity of necessitarianism and about the reality of generals and habits understood in terms of potential concrete effects even if unactualized.
Beyond realism and antirealism: John Dewey and the neopragmatists. The Vanderbilt library of American philosophy. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Reprinted Collected Peirce v. Google Books Eprint. Peirce Society , v. Arisbe Eprint. See quotes under " Philosophy " at the Commens Dictionary of Peirce's Terms.
Peirce also harshly criticized the Cartesian approach of starting from hyperbolic doubts rather than from the combination of established beliefs and genuine doubts.
See the opening of his "Some Consequences of Four Incapacities", Journal of Speculative Philosophy v. Reprinted Collected Papers v.
Rosenthal, C. Lewis in Focus: The Pulse of Pragmatism , Indiana University Press, , p. The Self Awakened: Pragmatism Unbound.
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